INTRODUCTIONSierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an space of 27,925 sq. miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated within the sale and cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a bit of land meant as a house for African settlers who had been waifs in London and later it was used as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 1961 and have become a Republic in 1971. Training is offered by each non-public and state-sponsored colleges. The present system of schooling is 6-3-4-4 (that’s six years Major college, three years Junior Secondary Faculty, 4 years Senior Secondary Faculty and 4 years tertiary/increased schooling. This technique is complemented by non- formal schooling.CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONEducation is regularly used within the sense of instruction within the classroom, laboratory, workshop or home science room and consists principally within the imparting by the instructor, and the acquisition by pupils, of knowledge and psychological in addition to guide abilities. A wider that means than instruction is that of education. That’s to say all that goes on inside the college as a part of the pupil’s life there. It contains, amongst different issues, relationship between pupils and academics, pupils and pupils each in and out of doors the varsity. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that no matter helps to form the human being; to make the person what he’s or hinder him from being what he’s not is a part of his schooling. Implicitly schooling is lifelong and ubiquitous; it’s the sum whole of all influences which go to make an individual what he’s, from beginning to dying. It contains the house, our neighbors, and the road amongst others.Training is to some extent a deliberate deliberate course of devised and performed by the educator with the aim of imbuing the learner with sure info, abilities, of thoughts and physique in addition to modes of habits thought-about fascinating. Partly it’s the learner’s personal response to the atmosphere through which he lives. Training has three focal factors: the person/particular person upon whom the educator’s influences are dropped at bear; the society or group to which he belongs; and the entire context of actuality inside which the person and society play their half. Man is a social creature; he grows as an individual by means of the influence of character on character; and even for his primary bodily wants he relies on the assistance and cooperation of his fellow women and men. With out society and the mutual assist and enrichment of experiences which it supplies civilization is unattainable and the lifetime of man, in Hobbes’ phrases, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”One of many basic information of human existence is the strain between the pull of the previous and the ahead urge into the long run, between stability and alter, custom and innovation. For efficient residing,man wants a circle of safety, an space of established habits and relationship which types reliable relationships. That is additionally true of society. For its efficient functioning there should be an underlying continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its id as a society and safeguards it in opposition to the disruptive results of change. Change should be for all times and never static however this alteration in flip should be managed by the fundamental traditions of society. It’s custom which supplies a nation its character and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of custom subsequently is clearly essential.It has been acknowledged from time immemorial that the conservation of conventional schooling has an important half to play within the growth of the kid. The youngsters of right this moment are the adults of tomorrow; they should be skilled subsequently, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of life peculiar to the actual society to which they belong. For each society has the will to protect itself not solely bodily however as group consciously sharing sure goals, beliefs and patterns of habits. Any such schooling isn’t essentially formal in colleges by way of classroom instruction however that effected not directly by means of the household and thru the influence on the person of social influences and customs which the kid can’t evade. In Sierra Leone this social schooling included elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance through which younger women and men should show themselves worthy of the group. The final word objective was to provide a person who was trustworthy, respectful, expert, cooperative, and who may conform to the social order of the day. As Aristotle as soon as acknowledged “the constitution of a state will suffer if education is neglected. The citizens of a state should always be educated to suit the constitution of the state. The type of character appropriate to a constitution is the power which continues to sustain it as it is also the state force which originally created it” (p. I).TRADITIONAL EDUCATION IN SOCIETYTraditional schooling has each a inventive and conservation perform in society; it’s a highly effective technique of preserving a society’s customs, if not tradition. Previously the character and wishes of society performed an important half in figuring out the character of schooling. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) as soon as wrote in his e book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil society the educational system will tend to reflect the social pattern, while social uneasiness and instability create opportunity for using education as an instrument of social change”(p.7). An analogous view was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by means of schooling society can formulate its personal functions, can set up its personal means and sources and thus save itself with definiteness and financial system within the route through which it needs to maneuver. Training seems to be each to the previous and the long run; inevitably it displays the traditions and character of society. Conventional schooling can be utilized to arrange for adjustments in society and anticipate and stop adjustments or the consequences of adjustments in society.Conventional schooling conserves and arms on the customs and methods of life which represent the character of a society and maintains its unity. It additionally helps society to interpret its features in new methods to satisfy the challenges of change, in search of methods or traces of growth that are in line with the traditions and customs and can on the similar time increase society to a extra full achievement of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONEHistory reveals that there have been no formal colleges the place youngsters had been educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies had been appeared upon as establishments to coach youngsters. They had been bush colleges. And the schooling these bush colleges offered was casual. Youngsters who went by means of these secret societies had been thought-about able to finishing up their civic obligations. They turned adults and might marry and begin life. They thought-about themselves as one household. In different phrases each Secret Societies created a way of comradeship and unity amongst members regardless of household, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was subsequently thought-about that youngsters who had not gone by means of these secret societies weren’t totally matured.The Poro Secret Society is for boys. The non secular head of the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, seen solely by the older graduates or members. The bodily heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the actions of the establishment. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who typically educate and provides directions to different initiators. The Pa Manchiyas function academics to the initiates whereas the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the ladies and kids alike along with the brand new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages round. The Yambas are the top boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects whereas the Sayboms are the prefects; and the displays are the Gbanaboms. Casual courses are held within the Secret Poro Bush. The themes taught embody Artistic Sensible Arts, Performing Arts, Sensible Agriculture, Medication i.e. use of native herbs for the therapy of various illnesses), warfare and different abilities. In Artistic Sensible Arts initiates are taught methods to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wooden and cleaning soap stones into completely different objects similar to animals and people; in Performing Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and using Poro musical devices. In Sensible Agriculture initiates apply farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship with out criticism and develop accustomed to it. Thus they’re taken to the farms of their academics and elders to work on professional bono foundation. Nonetheless in the course of the harvest season initiates may move by means of these farms taking no matter they want and eat with out being questioned by farm homeowners. Initiates are taught to respect elders and use of weapons to kill animals. In an identical vein initiates are taught methods to use weapons in preventing in protection of their communities. Different abilities initiates are taught embody making fish traps, fishing and searching web, and basketry. In using herbs initiates pay cash (some freely given) for therapeutic varied sicknesses in addition to for cover in opposition to enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who need to trigger hurt to others utilizing herbs may ‘redeem’ the herb/medication involved. Over all initiates are taught a brand new Language spoken solely by members known as Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika that means I’m speaking to you; fonka bonomi that means Discuss to me. The usage of this new Language makes graduates very proud and really feel completely different from non-initiates. Graduates come out with new names similar to Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A commencement ceremony climaxes the occasion.Mother and father make large preparations together with stitching clothes for the graduates. To mark the commencement ceremony there’s feasting, consuming, dancing and singing reward songs for the graduates and their dad and mom. These certified for initiation should have been circumcised and grown to age of puberty. They should reside on their very own in the course of the interval of coaching which ranges from one to seven years. Graduates are totally admitted to the final Poro society by means of one other ceremony known as Enkorie, which lasts for 4 days.The Bondo/Sande Society is the establishment the place women are skilled for womanhood. Its non secular head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the bodily heads. These have non secular powers used to predict the long run and catch witches. They’re the senior academics. The Na Sokos are the service academics. They’ll provoke women even as much as the superior stage of the Society. The Digbas are the final academics and keep near the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand women/ladies. They make bulletins concerning the progress and actions or packages in the course of the commencement ceremony.The Na Fets, because the identify implies have no idea all of the secrecy of the establishment. They carry the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the upper standing of the establishment. Women admitted to the Bondo/Sande Society are skilled informally. Lessons are held at Kantha or sacred residence. The academics are largely involved with the transmission to those adolescent women the abilities and data which grownup ladies are anticipated to own with the intention to perform correctly and intelligently of their group. The themes women are taught embody Cooking, Performing Arts, Fishing, Husband and Baby Care, and House Administration. In Cooking women are taught methods to put together meals by means of statement and participation within the preparation of varied dishes and are later allowed to have a go together with little or no supervision. Those that couldn’t prepare dinner correctly are allowed to repeat. In Performing Arts women are taught methods to compose and sing songs and methods to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Alongside singing women are taught methods to dance and people who dance nicely could be part of the hierarchy of the Sampas. Women are additionally taught methods to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. Additional women are taught methods to assist their potential husbands and methods to maintain youngsters particularly these of senior members. Just like the Poro Society commencement ceremonies are marked by large preparations. Each dad and mom and potential husbands would purchase new clothes, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the day of the commencement ceremony the brand new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They arrive out with new names similar to Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates an indication of maturity. Initiating women into Bondo/Sande society lasts between just a few months and three years.CHALLENGESIf schooling has the important perform of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a altering atmosphere, and of elevating them to richer and extra fruitful expression then each the Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies, as conventional brokers of this course of ought to take pleasure in a place of the best esteem. By way of these secret societies the nation’s tradition flows from one era to the opposite and the aspirations of society are centered with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. They stand at a degree the place the energies of youngsters are launched into new and artistic potentialities. By way of these secret societies youngsters bear in mind the previous actions of their predecessors. They assist in behavioral coaching patterns of society. These societies are establishments of inspiration and each politicians and chiefs use them to benefit. That’s to both acquire or preserve energy. Main and binding selections are taken within the Poro Bush of which solely members are allowed to attend and participate. The Poro Secret Society acts as a test in opposition to the abuse of energy. In disaster ridden conditions main choice are taken within the Poro Bush. The Poro society even acts as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and will promulgate normal legal guidelines and regulate buying and selling practices. It is usually concerned within the burial of chiefs and different vital native officers (Alie, 1990).Western schooling has existed within the nation for lengthy and is now so integral a part of the civilized life that there’s a tendency to imagine that it’s the predominant or sole technique of imparting abilities, data and social values in youngsters. This isn’t the case in Sierra Leone. The significance of the Poro and Bondo conventional secret societies can’t be over-sighted due to their huge potentiality in educating youngsters for all times in society. Basic is that respect for individuals as individuals is the premise of conventional society. Linked with that is courtesy, sensitivity to the wants of others, cooperativeness, self-discipline, ethical and bodily braveness, arduous work and excessive requirements of feat. These are handed on to youngsters within the atmosphere through which they’re a part of their day by day experiences. However, these conventional establishments as brokers of schooling are at present confronted with many challenges there-by forcing their demise. The apply of feminine genital circumcision is of worldwide concern and in Sierra Leone persons are agitating for its whole ban. At the moment women are allowed to be circumcised at age eighteen throughout which period a toddler is perceived to be matured sufficient to decide on whether or not or to not be initiated into the Bondo/Sande secret society. As well as the interval of initiation is perceived too lengthy and is being challenged. In addition to youngsters today not should be initiated into these societies to be taught methods to be clear, prepare dinner, rear youngsters, apply agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to quote just a few examples. All these may very well be learnt both in or outdoors formal education by means of studying. What’s extra Faith, particularly Christianity and Islam, western life, in addition to rural-urban migration are forcing these secret societies to obliteration.In addition to the actions and work of those conventional societies are usually not in curriculum kind and documented. Neither is also using herbs documented. Due to this fact by discontinuing these conventional secret societies Sierra Leoneans stand to lose their cultural heritage. If nonetheless, schooling has the important perform of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a altering atmosphere, and of elevating them to a richer and extra fruitful expression then these conventional secret societies, as brokers of this course of ought to take pleasure in a place of the best esteem. By way of these societies the nationwide tradition flows from one era to a different and the aspirations of society are centered with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. These secret societies stand on the level the place the energies of youngsters are launched into new and artistic potentialities.